—>NOTE: THIS PAGE IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION (a few patents need to be removed because not related, many others need to be added, etc.)

Here follows a list of unique patents that are related at some degree to the Targeted Individuals phenomenon, specifically to the Covert Directed-Energy Weapons involved. The dates refer to the year of publication, not of registration (which is even prior). The names of the inventors are indicated just before the abstract.
It doesn’t necessarily mean these are specifically the technologies used on TIs (even though in some cases it looks safe to assume they are), nonetheless they clearly point to the fact that there’s been a lot of related research since decades ago. Moreover, it’s not granted in any way to assume that these inventions were intended for harmful goals (most, if not all of them, can and actually are used for good in the first place), and especially that they do work: generally speaking, a patent being issued is not a 100% guarantee that anything described in the patent does factually work.
As a rule of thumb, the technologies used on TIs are “classified”, but clearly these patents are all but meaningless.
If you use google to view the patents, don’t forget to check citations and references to other related patents at the bottom of the HTML page. Nonetheless, remember to view it in PDF format to consult the drawings of the patent in review, and to generally read it on a clearer layout.
For an advanced research through the patents available on google use the following link:
  • US 5,159,703 Silent Subliminal Presentation System (1992) – Oliver Lowery — A silent communications system in which non-aural carriers in the very low or very high audio-frequency range, or in the adjacent ultrasonic frequency spectrum, are amplitude-modulated with the desired intelligence and propagated acoustically or vibrationally for inducement into the brain.
  • US 2,304,095 Method of and apparatus for inducing and sustaining sleep (1942) – Hull Maury I
  • US 6,024,700 System and method for detecting a thought and generating a control instruction in response thereto (2000) – Guerman G. Nemirovski, Gregory L. Troussov — A method of detecting a thought and generating a control instruction corresponding to the thought includes detecting the thought by monitoring air pressure near a human ear when a user is thinking. In addition, the method includes providing a control instruction corresponding to the detected thought. A system for detecting a thought and generating a control instruction corresponding to the thought is also disclosed and includes a pressure sensor for sensing a pressure near a human ear when a user is thinking, wherein the sensor produces an electrical signal corresponding to the pressure. A processor processes the electrical signal to detect the thought, generates the control instruction in response to the detection, and sends a control instruction to an output peripheral which provides an output control function corresponding to the control instruction.
  • US 1,749,090 Apparatus for obtaining criminal confessions and photographically recording them (1930)Adelaide Shelby Helene — The present invention relates to a new and useful apparatus for obtaining confessions from culprits, or those suspected of the commission of crimes, and photographically recording these confessions, inthe form of sound waves, in conjunction with their pictures, depicting their every expression and emotion, to be preserved for later reproduction as evidence against them. 
  • US 5211129 Syringe-implantable identification transponder (1993) – Vern Taylor, Daniel Koturov, John Bradin, Gerald E. Loeb — An improved transponder for transmitting an identification of an animal or the like is described which is sufficiently miniaturized to be syringe-implantable, thus avoiding the necessity of surgical procedures. The transponder comprises a coil which receives an interrogation signal and transmits an identification signal in response thereto. The transponder receives the energy required for transmission by inductive coupling to an interrogator. A single integrated circuit chip is provided which detects the interrogation signal, rectifies it to generate power needed for transmission, stores an identification of the transponder and hence of the animal in which it is implanted, and generates a frequency-shift-keyed, Manchester encoded identification signal in response to the interrogation signal. The device transmits the identification signal in real time, that is, immediately upon commencement of the interrogation signal, such that no discrete elements for energy storage are required. The transmission frequency and the bit rate are both determined by integer division of the interrogation signal such that no discrete elements such as crystal oscillators are required for signal generation.
  • US 4,959,559 Electromagnetic or other directed energy pulse launcher (1990) – Richard W. Ziolkowski — The physical realization of new solutions of wave propagation equations, such as Maxwell’s equations and the scaler wave equation, produces localized pulses of wave energy such as electromagnetic or acoustic energy which propagate over long distances without divergence. The pulses are produced by driving each element of an array of radiating sources with a particular drive function so that the resultant localized packet of energy closely approximates the exact solutions and behaves the same.
  • DE 10,253,433 Thought transmission unit sends modulated electromagnetic wave beams to human receiver to influence thoughts and actions without electronic receiver Bengt Noelting
  • WO 2001/093948 Diagnosis and classification of disease and disability using low frequency magnetic field designed pulses (cnps) Frank S Prato, Alex W Thomas, Kevin Patrick White
  • US 3,014,477 Hypnotic inducerRobert L Carlin, 1961
  • US 4,343,301 Subcutaneous neural stimulation or local tissue destruction – Robert Indech
  • US 5,309,411 For generating sonic wavesDehua Huang, M. A. Breazeale
  • US 6,889,085 Method and system for forming an acoustic signal from neural timing difference data Thomas P. Dawson
  • US 6,238,333 Remote magnetic manipulation of nervous systems Hendricus G. Loos
  • US 7,702,395 Neurostimulator Bruce Towe, William R. Crisp, 2010 — Methods and devices of stimulating nerves are disclosed. In one embodiment adapted for stimulating excitable tissue, the invention includes drive circuitry, an acoustic transducer and a pair of electrodes.
  • US 6536440 Method and system for generating sensory data onto the human neural cortex, Thomas P. Dawson, 2003 — A non-invasive system and process for projecting sensory data onto the human neural cortex is provided. The system includes a primary transducer array and a secondary transducer array. The primary transducer array acts as a coherent signal source, and the secondary transducer array acts as a controllable diffraction pattern that focuses energy onto the neural cortex in a desired pattern. In addition, the pattern of energy is constructed such that each portion projected into the neural cortex may be individually pulsed at low frequency. This low frequency pulsing is formed by controlling the phase differences between the emitted energy of the elements of primary and secondary transducer arrays.
  • US 6,584,357 Method and system for forming an acoustic signal from neural timing difference data Thomas P. Dawson
  • US 5,889,870 Acoustic heterodyne device and method Elwood G. Norris
  • US 3,060,795 Apparatus for producing visual stimulation – Becker Hal C, Corrigan Robert E
  • US 5,868,100 For controlling the location of an animal Robert E. Marsh, 1999 — A fenceless animal confinement system comprising portable units attached to the animal and including means for receiving GPS signals and for providing stimulation to the animal. The GPS signals are processed to provide location information which is compared to the desired boundary parameters. If the animal has moved outside the desired area, the stimulation means is activated. The signal processing circuitry may be included either within the portable unit or within a separate fixed station.
  • US 5,878,155 Method for verifying human identity during electronic sale transactions Thomas W. Heeter, 1999. — A method is presented for facilitating sales transactions by electronic media. A bar code or a design is tattooed on an individual. Before the sales transaction can be consummated, the tattoo is scanned with a scanner. Characteristics about the scanned tattoo are compared to characteristics about other tattoos stored on a computer database in order to verify the identity of the buyer. Once verified, the seller may be authorized to debit the buyer’s electronic bank account in order to consummate the transaction. The seller’s electronic bank account may be similarly updated.
  • US 5,151,080 Method and apparatus for inducing and establishing a changed state of consciousness – Claus Bick, 1992 — An electroacoustic device includes a sound generator as well as a system for producing synthetic human speech, connected to a modulation stage for superimposing the output signals thereof. The superimposed output signals are applied via an amplifier stage to one of a headphone system or loudspeaker system.
  • US 3,967,616 Multichannel system for and a multifactorial method of controlling the nervous system of a living organismSidney A. Ross, 1976. — A novel method for controlling the nervous system of a living organism for therapeutic and research purposes, among other applications, and an electronic system utilized in, and enabling the practice of, the invented method. Bioelectrical signals generated in specifictopological areas of the organism’s nervous system, typically areas of the brain, are processed by the invented system so as to produce a sensory stimulus if the system detects the presence or absence, as the case may be, of certain characteristics in the waveform patterns of the bioelectrical signals being monitored. The coincidence of the same or different characteristics in two or more waveform patterns, or the non-coincidence thereof, may be correlated with a certain desired condition of the organism’s nervous system; likewise, with respect to the coincidence or non-coincidence of different characteristics of a single waveform pattern. In any event, the sensory stimulus provided by the invented system, typically an audio or visual stimulus, or combination thereof, is fed back to the organism which associates its presence with the goal of achieving the desired condition of its nervous system. Responding to the stimulus, the organism can be trained to control the waveform patterns of the monitored bioelectrical signals and thereby, control its own nervous system. The results of the coincidence function permit results heretofore unobtainable.
  • US 2007/0139247 Multifunctional radio frequency directed energy system — Kenneth Brown, David Canich, Russell Berg
  • US 3,156,787 Solid state hearing systemLawrence Joseph L, Puharich Henry K, 1964.
  • US 4,877,027 Hearing System — Wayne Brunkan, 1989. A method for directly inducing sound into the head of a person, using microwaves in the range of 100 MHz to 10,000 MHz, modulated with a waveform of frequency- modulated bursts.
  • US 3,566,347 Psycho-Acoustic Projector — Andrew Flanders, 1971. A system for producing aural psychological disturbances and partial deafness in the enemy during combat situations.
  • US 4,034,741 Noise Generator and Transmitter — Guy Adams and Jess Carden, Jr, July 12, 1977. An analgesic noise-generator.
  • US 5,270,800 Subliminal Message Generator (1993) – Robert Sweet — A combined subliminal and supraliminal message generator for use with a television receiver; permits complete control of subliminal messages and their presentation. Also applicable to cable television and computers.
  • US 5,134,484 Superimposing Method and Apparatus Useful for Subliminal Messages – Joseph Wilson, July 28, 1992. Method of Changing a Person’s Behaviour,
  • US 4,717,343 Alan Densky, January 5, 1988. A method of conditioning a person’s unconscious mind in order to effect desired change in the person’s behaviour, and which does not require the services of a trained therapist
  • US 4,395,600 Auditory Subliminal Message System and Method – Rene Lundy and David Tyler, July 26, 1983. An amplitude-controlled subliminal message may be mixed with background music.
  • US 4,777,529 Auditory Subliminal Programming System – Richard Schultz and Raymond Dolejs, October 11, 1988.
  • US 4,834,701 Apparatus for Inducing Frequency Reduction in Brain Wave – Kazumi Masaki, May 30, 1989.
  • US 5,539,705 Ultrasonic Speech Translator and Communication System – M. A. Akerman, Curtis Ayers, Howard Haynes, July 23, 1996. A wireless communication system, undetectable by radio-frequency methods, for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustic pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids and solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustic pressure waves back to the original audio signal. This invention was made with government support under Contract DE-ACO5-840R2l400, awarded by the US Department of Energy to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
  • US 4,821,326 Non-Audible Speech Generation Method and Apparatus – Norman MacLeod, April 11, 1989.
  • US 4,227,516 Apparatus for Electrophysiological Stimulation – Bruce Meland and Bernard Gindes, October 14, 1980.
  • US 5,352,181 Method and Recording for Producing Sounds and Messages to Achieve Alpha and Theta Brainwave States and Positive Emotional States in Humans – Mark Davis, October 4, l994.
  • US 4,883,067 Method and Apparatus for Translating the EEG into Music to Induce and Control Various Psychological and Physiological States and to Control a Musical Instrument – Knispel et. al., November 28, 1989.
  • US 5.356,368 Method of and Apparatus for Inducing Desired States of Consciousness – Robert Monroe, October 18, 1994. Improved methods and apparatus for entraining human brain patterns, employing frequency-following-response (FFR) techniques and facilitating attainment of desired states of consciousness.
  • US 5,213,562 Method of Inducing Mental. Emotional and Physical States of Consciousness, including Specific Mental Activity, in Human Beings – Robert Monroe, May 25, 1993.
  • US 4,335,710 Device for the Induction of Specific Brain Wave Patterns – John Williamson, June 22, 1982. Brainwave patterns associated with relaxed and meditative states in a subject are gradually induced without deleterious chemical or neurologic side effects.
  • US 4,191,175 Method and Apparatus for Repetitively Producing a Noise-like Audible Signal – William Nagle, March 4, 1980.
  • US 3,773,049 Apparatus for the Treatment of Neuropsychic and Somatic Diseases with Heat, Light, Sound and VHF Electromagnetic Radiation – L. Y. Rabichev, V. F. Vasiliev, A. S. Putilin, T. G. Ilina, P. V. Raku and L. P. Kemitsky, November 20, 1973. Don’t let the nice title fool you. This is the patent for LIDA, the infamous Soviet brainwashing machine.
  • US 4,889,526 Non-Invasive Method and Apparatus for Modulating Brain Signals through an External Magnetic or Electric Field to Reduce Pain – Elizabeth Rauscher and William Van Bise, December 26, 1989.
  • US 3,393,279 Nervous System Excitation Device – Gillis Patrick Flanagan, July 16, 1968. A method of transmitting audio information via a radio frequency signal modulated with the audio info through electrodes placed on the subject’s skin, causing the sensation of hearing the audio information in the brain.
  • US 3,647,970 Method and System for Simplifying Speech Waveforms – G. Patrick Flanagan, March 7, 1972. A complex speech waveform is simplified so that it can be transmitted directly through earth or water as a waveform and understood directly or after amplification.
  • US 2,995,633 Means for Aiding Hearing – Henry Puharich and Joseph Lawrence, August 8, 1961. Means for converting audible signals to electrical signals and conveying them to viable nerves of the facial system.
  • US 3,170,993 Means for Aiding Hearing by Electrical Stimulation of the Facial Nerve System – Henry Puharich, February 23, 1965.
  • US 4,858,612 Hearing Device – Philip Stocklin, August 22, 1989. A method and apparatus for simulation of hearing in mammals by introduction of a plurality of microwaves into the regions of the auditory cortex.
  • US 2007/0018810 – Radio frequency identification and tagging for implantable medical devices and medical device systems (2005)
  • US 2008/0258930 – Permission based rfid tag (2007)
  • US 8,115,618 – RFID antenna for in-body device (2008)
  • US 2002/0165758 – Identification and tracking of persons using RFID-tagged items (2001)
  • US 2004/0129781 – System and method for utilizing RF tags to collect data concerning post-consumer resources (2003)
  • US 7,076,441 – Identification and tracking of persons using RFID-tagged items in store environments (2001)
  • US 6,659,344 – Automated monitoring of activity of shoppers in a market (2000)
  • US 5,629,678 Personal tracking and recovery system (1997) {“Apparatus for tracking and recovering humans utilizes an implantable transceiver incorporating a power supply and actuation system allowing the unit to remain implanted and functional for years without maintenance. The implanted transmitter may be remotely actuated, or actuated by the implantee…”}
  • US 8,661,961 Energy focusing system for active denial apparatus (2007) {Wavestream Corporation}
  • US 6,587,729 Apparatus for audibly communicating speech using the radio frequency hearing effect (2000) {Original Assignee: The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force}
  • US 6,470,214 Method and device for implementing the radio frequency hearing effect (1996) {Original Assignee: The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force}
  • US 7,784,390 Solid-state non-lethal directed energy weapon (2007) {Raytheon; meaning ‘Lightning’/’Ray’ of the Gods, theon.}
  • WO 1993/010730 Hearing Aid Based on Microwaves – World Intellectual Property Organization (1992)
  • US 3,629,521 Hearing systems (1970)
  • US 7,730,819 Weapon having lethal and non-lethal directed energy portions (2009)
  • US 6,052,336 Apparatus and method of broadcasting audible sound using ultrasonic sound as a carrier (1998)
  • US 6,017,302 Subliminal acoustic manipulation of nervous systems (1997)
  • US 6,039,688 Therapeutic behavior modification program, compliance monitoring and feedback system (1997)
  • US 8,049,173 Dual use RF directed energy weapon and imager (2007)
  • US 7,633,425 Waveguide system comprising reflective surfaces for directing a wave beam to a target (2007)
  • US 7,902,979 Directed energy beam virtual fence (2008)
  • US 5,952,600 Engine disabling weapon (1997)
  • US 5,973,999 Acoustic cannon (1997)
  • US 7,629,918 Multifunctional radio frequency directed energy system (2005)
  • US 7,806,527 Electromagnetic beam detection system (2007)
  • US 5,458,142 Device for monitoring a magnetic field emanating from an organism
  • US 7,440,931 Method and apparatus for analyzing thought system (2000)
  • US 6,506,148 Nervous system manipulation by electromagnetic fields from monitors (2001)
  • US 6,219,657 Device and method for creation of emotions (1998)
  • US 5,507,291 Method and an associated apparatus for remotely determining information as to person’s emotional state (1994)
  • US 7,272,565 System and method for monitoring individuals (2002)
  • US 6,006,188 Speech signal processing for determining psychological or physiological characteristics using a knowledge base (1997)
  • US 5,330,414 Brain wave inducing apparatus (1992)
  • US 6,011,991 Communication system and method including brain wave analysis and/or use of brain activity (1998)
  • US 7,102,508 Method and apparatus for locating and tracking persons (2003)
  • US 6,414,629 Tracking device (2001)
  • US 5,760,692 Intra-oral tracking device (1996)
  • US 5,626,630 Medical telemetry system using an implanted passive transponder (1994)
  • US 6,582,365 Advanced sensor systems for biotelemetry (1999)
  • US 6,443,890 Wireless internet bio-telemetry monitoring system (2000)
  • US 6,374,131 Biomagnetism measuring method and apparatus (1999)
  • US 2010/0144296 Carbon Nanotubes for Wireless Communication and Radio Transmission (2008)
  • US 8,157,609  Mind-control toys and methods of interaction therewith (2009)
  • US 3,951,134 Apparatus and method for remotely monitoring and altering brain waves
  • US 5,800,481 Thermal excitation of sensory resonances (1995)
  • US 6,488,617 Method and Device for Producing a Desired Brain State (2002) – Katz, Bruce — A method and device for the production of a desired brain state in an individual contain means for monitoring and analyzing the brain state while a set of one or more magnets produce fields that alter this state. A computational system alters various parameters of the magnetic fields in order to close the gap between the actual and desired brain state. This feedback process operates continuously until the gap is minimized and/or removed.
  • US 6,487,531 Signal Injection Coupling into the Human Vocal Tract… (2002) – Tosaya, Carol — A means and method are provided for enhancing or replacing the natural excitation of the human vocal tract by artificial excitation means, wherein the artificially created acoustics present additional spectral, temporal, or phase data useful for (1) enhancing the machine recognition robustness of audible speech or (2) enabling more robust machine-recognition of relatively inaudible mouthed or whispered speech. The artificial excitation (a) may be arranged to be audible or inaudible, (b) may be designed to be non-interfering with another user’s similar means, (c) may be used in one or both of a vocal content-enhancement mode or a complimentary vocal tract-probing mode, and/or (d) may be used for the recognition of audible or inaudible continuous speech or isolated spoken commands.
  • US 6,430,443 Method and Apparatus for Treating Auditory Hallucinations (2002) – Karell, Manuel — Stimulating one or more vestibulocochlear nerves or cochlea or cochlear regions will treat, prevent and control auditory hallucinations.
  • US 6,426,919 (July 30, 2002) Portable and Hand-Held Device for Making Humanly Audible Sounds… Gerosa, William — A portable and hand-held device for making humanly audible sounds responsive to the detecting of ultrasonic sounds. The device includes a hand-held housing and circuitry that is contained in the housing. The circuitry includes a microphone that receives the ultrasonic sound, a first low voltage audio power amplifier that strengthens the signal from the microphone, a second low voltage audio power amplifier that further strengthens the signal from the first low voltage audio power amplifier, a 7-stage ripple carry binary counter that lowers the frequency of the signal from the second low voltage audio power amplifier so as to be humanly audible, a third low voltage audio power amplifier that strengthens the signal from the 7-stage ripple carry binary counter, and a speaker that generates a humanly audible sound from the third low voltage audio power amplifier.
  • US 6,292,688 Method and Apparatus for Analyzing Neurological Response to Emotion-Inducing Stimuli (2001) – Patton, Richard — A method of determining the extent of the emotional response of a test subject to stimului having a time-varying visual content, for example, an advertising presentation. The test subject is positioned to observe the presentation for a given duration, and a path of communication is established between the subject and a brain wave detector/analyzer. The intensity component of each of at least two different brain wave frequencies is measured during the exposure, and each frequency is associated with a particular emotion. While the subject views the presentation, periodic variations in the intensity component of the brain waves of each of the particular frequencies selected is measured. The change rates in the intensity at regular periods during the duration are also measured. The intensity change rates are then used to construct a graph of plural coordinate points, and these coordinate points graphically establish the composite emotional reaction of the subject as the presentation continues.
  • US 6,258,022 Behavior Modification (2001) – Rose, John — Behavior modification of a human subject takes place under hypnosis, when the subject is in a relaxed state. A machine plays back a video or audio recording, during which the subject is instructed to activate a device to create a perceptible stimulation which is linked, through the hypnosis, with a visualization of enhanced or improved performance. After the hypnosis, the user can reactivate the device at will, whenever the improved performance, such as an improved sporting performance, is desired. This will again create the perceptible stimulation and thus induce the required visualization.
  • US 6,239,705 Intra-Oral Electronic Tracking Device (2001) – Glen, Jeffrey — An improved stealthy, non-surgical, biocompatable electronic tracking device is provided in which a housing is placed intraorally. The housing contains microcircuitry. The microcircuitry comprises a receiver, a passive mode to active mode activator, a signal decoder for determining positional fix, a transmitter, an antenna, and a power supply. Optionally, an amplifier may be utilized to boost signal strength. The power supply energizes the receiver. Upon receiving a coded activating signal, the positional fix signal decoder is energized, determining a positional fix. The transmitter subsequently transmits through the antenna a position locating signal to be received by a remote locator. In another embodiment of the present invention, the microcircuitry comprises a receiver, a passive mode to active mode activator, a transmitter, an antenna and a power supply. Optionally, an amplifier may be utilized to boost signal strength. The power supply energizes the receiver. Upon receiving a coded activating signal, the transmitter is energized. The transmitter subsequently transmits through the antenna a homing signal to be received by a remote locator.
  • US 6,167,304 (December 26, 2000) Pulse Variability in Electric Field Manipulation of Nervous Systems Loos, Hendricus — Apparatus and method for manipulating the nervous system of a subject by applying to the skin a pulsing external electric field which, although too weak to cause classical nerve stimulation, modulates the normal spontaneous spiking patterns of certain kinds of afferent nerves. For certain pulse frequencies the electric field stimulation can excite in the nervous system resonances with observable physiological consequences. Pulse variability is introduced for the purpose of thwarting habituation of the nervous system to the repetitive stimulation, or to alleviate the need for precise tuning to a resonance frequency, or to control pathological oscillatory neural activities such as tremors or seizures. Pulse generators with stochastic and deterministic pulse variability are disclosed, and the output of an effective generator of the latter type is characterized.
  • US 6,135,944 Method of Inducing Harmonious States of Being (2000) – Bowman, Gerard D., et al. — A method of inducing harmonious states of being using vibrational stimuli, preferably sound, comprised of a multitude of frequencies expressing a specific pattern of relationship. Two base signals are modulated by a set of ratios to generate a plurality of harmonics. The harmonics are combined to form a “fractal” arrangement.
  • US 6,122,322 Subliminal Message Protection (2000) – Jandel, Magnus — The present invention relates to a method and to a system for detecting a first context change between two frames. When a second context change between a further two frames occurs within a predetermined time interval, the frames accommodated within the two context changes are defined as a subliminal message. An alarm is sent to an observer upon detection of a subliminal message.
  • US 6,091,994 Pulsative Manipulation of Nervous Systems (2000) – Loos, Hendricus — Method and apparatus for manipulating the nervous system by imparting subliminal pulsative cooling to the subject’s skin at a frequency that is suitable for the excitation of a sensory resonance. At present, two major sensory resonances are known, with frequencies near 1/2 Hz and 2.4 Hz. The 1/2 Hz sensory resonance causes relaxation, sleepiness, ptosis of the eyelids, a tonic smile, a “knot” in the stomach, or sexual excitement, depending on the precise frequency used. The 2.4 Hz resonance causes the slowing of certain cortical activities, and is characterized by a large increase of the time needed to silently count backward from 100 to 60, with the eyes closed. The invention can be used by the general public for inducing relaxation, sleep, or sexual excitement, and clinically for the control and perhaps a treatment of tremors, seizures, and autonomic system disorders such as panic attacks. Embodiments shown are a pulsed fan to impart subliminal cooling pulses to the subject’s skin, and a silent device which induces periodically varying flow past the subject’s skin, the flow being induced by pulsative rising warm air plumes that are caused by a thin resistive wire which is periodically heated by electric current pulses.
  • US 6,081,744 Electric Fringe Field Generator for Manipulating Nervous Systems (2000) –  Loos, Hendricus — Apparatus and method for manipulating the nervous system of a subject through afferent nerves, modulated by externally applied weak fluctuating electric fields, tuned to certain frequencies such as to excite a resonance in neural circuits. Depending on the frequency chosen, excitation of such resonances causes in a human subject relaxation, sleepiness, sexual excitement, or the slowing of certain cortical processes. The electric field used for stimulation of the subject is induced by a pair of field electrodes charged to opposite polarity and placed such that the subject is entirely outside the space between the field electrodes. Such configuration allows for very compact devices where the field electrodes and a battery-powered voltage generator are contained in a small casing, such as a powder box. The stimulation by the weak external electric field relies on frequency modulation of spontaneous spiking patterns of afferent nerves. The method and apparatus can be used by the general public as an aid to relaxation, sleep, or arousal, and clinically for the control and perhaps the treatment of tremors and seizures, and disorders of the autonomic nervous system, such as panic attacks.
  • US 5,954,630 (September 21, 1999) FM Theta-Inducing Audible Sound… Masaki, Kazumi, et al. — An audible sound of modulated wave where a very low-frequency wave of about 20 hertz or lower is superposed on an audio low-frequency wave effectively stimulates Fm theta in human brain waves to improve attention and concentration during mental tasks when auditorily administered. The audible sound is also effective in stimulation of human alpha wave when the very low-frequency wave lies within the range of about 2-10 hertz. Such audible sound is artificially obtainable by generating an electric signal which contains such a modulated wave, and transducing it into audible sound wave.
  • US 5,954,629 Brain Wave Inducing System (1999) – Yanagidaira, Masatoshi, et al. — Sensors are provided for detecting brain waves of a user, and a band-pass filter is provided for extracting a particular brain waves including an .alpha. wave included in a detected brain wave. The band-pass filter comprises a first band-pass filter having a narrow pass band, and a second band-pass filter having a wide pass band. One of the first and second band-pass filters is selected, and a stimulation signal is produced in dependency on an .alpha. wave extracted by a selected band-pass filter. In accordance with the stimulation signal, a stimulation light is emitted to the user in order to induce the user to relax or sleeping state.
  • US 5,935,054 Magnetic Excitation of Sensory Resonances (1999) – Loos, H. — The invention pertains to influencing the nervous system of a subject by a weak externally applied magnetic field with a frequency near 1/2 Hz. In a range of amplitudes, such fields can excite the 1/2 sensory resonance, which is the physiological effect involved in “rocking the baby”.
  • US 5,922,016 Apparatus for Electric Stimulation of Auditory Nerves of a Human Being (1999) – Wagner, Hermann — Apparatus for electric stimulation and diagnostics of auditory nerves of a human being, e.g. for determination of sensation level (SL), most conformable level (MCL) and uncomfortable level (UCL) audibility curves, includes a stimulator detachably secured to a human being for sending a signal into a human ear, and an electrode placed within the human ear and electrically connected to the stimulator by an electric conductor for conducting the signals from the stimulator into the ear. A control unit is operatively connected to the stimulator for instructing the stimulator as to characteristics of the generated signals being transmitted to the ear.
  • US 5,868,103 Method and Apparatus for Controlling an Animal (1999) – Boyd, Randal — An apparatus for controlling an animal wherein the animal receives a control stimulus of the release of a substance having an adverse effect upon the animal as a corrective measure. The apparatus includes a transmitter for producing a transmitted field, and a releasable collar for attaching to the neck of the animal. The collar includes a receiver for receiving the transmitted field and for producing a received signal, a control circuit for determining when the received signal indicates that the animal requires a corrective measure and for producing a control signal, a container for containing the substance having an adverse effect upon the animal, and a mechanism for releasing the substance from the container into the presence of the animal upon the production of the control signal by the control circuit. In use, the transmitter is set to produce the transmitted field and the collar is attached to the neck of the animal. As the animal moves about, the receiver in the collar receives the transmitted field and produces a received signal. The control circuit determines when the received signal indicates that the animal requires a corrective measure. A control signal is produced by the control circuit when the determination is made that the animal requires a corrective measure. Upon the production of the control signal, the substance having an adverse effect upon the animal is released from the container and into the presence of the animal.
  • US 5,784,124 (July 21, 1998) Supraliminal Method of Education… D’Alitalia, Joseph A., et  al. — A method of behavior modification involves having a patient view supraliminal video messages superimposed upon an underlying video presentation. The video messages incorporate messages wherein at least some of the messages link a desired modified behavior to positive feelings of the patient. A supraliminal message generator and superimposer iteratively selects individual messages for display from the sequence of messages, decompressing the messages as required, and places the selected messages in a buffer memory of a video generation device. A processor of the supraliminal message generator and superimposer then fades the selected message from an invisible level to a visible level on the video display, and then fades the selected message from the visible level back to the invisible level.
  • US 5,649,061 Device and Method for Estimating a Mental Decision (1997) – Smyth, Christopher — A device and method for estimating a mental decision to select a visual cue from the viewer’s eye fixation and corresponding single event evoked cerebral potential. The device comprises an eyetracker, an electronic biosignal processor and a digital computer. The eyetracker determines the instantaneous viewing direction from oculometric measurements and a head position and orientation sensor. The electronic processor continually estimates the cerebral electroencephalogra mic potential from scalp surface measurements following corrections for electrooculogramic, electromyogramic and electrocardiogramic artifacts. The digital computer analyzes the viewing direction data for a fixation and then extracts the corresponding single event evoked cerebral potential. The fixation properties, such as duration, start and end pupil sizes, end state (saccade or blink) and gaze fixation count, and the parametric representation of the evoked potential are all inputs to an artificial neural network for outputting an estimate of the selection interest in the gaze point of regard. The artificial neural network is trained off-line prior to application to represent the mental decisions of the viewer. The device can be used to control computerized machinery from a video display by ocular gaze point of regard alone, by determining which visual cue the viewer is looking at and then using the estimation of the task-related selection as a selector switch.
  • US 5,644,363 Apparatus for Superimposing Visual Subliminal Instructions on a Video Signal (1997) – Mead, Talbert — A subliminal video instructional device comprises circuitry for receiving an underlying video signal and presenting this signal to horizontal and vertical synchronization detection circuits, circuitry for generating a subliminal video message synchronized to the underlying video signal, and circuitry for adding the subliminal video message to the underlying video signal to create a combination video signal.
  • US 5,586,967 Method & Recording for Producing Sounds and Messages to Achieve Alpha & Theta Brainwave States… (1996) – Davis, Mark E. — A method and recording for the use in achieving alpha and theta brainwave states and effecting positive emotional states in humans, is provided which includes a medium having a musical composition thereon with an initial tempo decreasing to a final tempo and verbal phrases recorded in synchrony with the decreasing tempo.
  • US 5,562,597 (October 8, 1996) Method & Apparatus for Reducing Physiological Stress Van Dick, Robert C. — Physiological stress in a human subject is treated by generating a weak electromagnetic field about a quartz crystal. The crystal is stimulated by applying electrical pulses of pulse widths between 0.1 and 50 microseconds each at a pulse repetition rate of between 0.5K and 10K pulses per second to a conductor positioned adjacent to the quartz crystal thereby generating a weak electromagnetic field. A subject is positioned within the weak electromagnetic field for a period of time sufficient to reduce stress.
  • US 5,551,879 Dream State Teaching Machine (1996) – Raynie, Arthur D. — A device for enhancing lucidity in the dream state of an individual. The device includes electronic circuitry incorporated into a headband for the user to wear while sleeping. The circuitry includes a detector for fitting adjacent to the eye of the sleeping individual, for detecting Rapid Eye Movement (REM), which occurs during the dream state. The detector emits a signal that is evaluated by additional circuitry to determine whether or not REM sleep is occurring. If REM sleep is occurring, a signal is generated to operate a recorded, which typically plays prerecorded messages through the headphones engaging the ear of the sleeping individual.
  • US 5,522,386 Apparatus for Determination of the Condition of the Vegetative Part of the Nervous System (1996) – Lerner, Eduard — Apparatus for use in the determination of the condition of the vegetative part of the nervous system and/or of sensory functions of an organism, i.e. a human being or animal. The apparatus comprises devices for generating and supplying to said organism at least one sensory stimulus chosen from a group of sensory stimuli, such as visual, sound, olfactory, gustatory, tactile or pain stimuli, and devices for measuring the skin potential and the evoked response of the organism to a stimulus. The measured data are processed by processing devices for automatically controlling the supply of at least one stimulus for providing a non-rhythmical sequence of stimuli. Preferably, pairs of stimuli are supplied for developing a conditioned reflex.
  • US 5,480,374 Method and Apparatus for Reducing Physiological Stress (1996) – Van Dick, Robert — Physiological stress in a human subject is treated by generating a weak electromagnetic field about a grounded electrode by the application of pulses of between 5 and 50 microseconds each at a pulse rate of between 0.5K and 10K pulses per second to a power electrode, the power electrode and grounded electrode being coupled to high voltage pulse generation means. A subject is positioned within the weak electromagnetic field for a period of time sufficient to cause an increase in his or her alpha or theta brain wave levels.
  • US 5,479,941 Device for Inducing Altered States of Consciousness (1996) – Harner, Michael — A rotating device for producing altered states of consciousness in a subject is provided. The subject’s body rotates about a point in the center of the body support means at a speed between about 10 and about 60 revolutions per minute. In a preferred embodiment the direction of rotation is periodically reversed.
  • US 5,392,788 Method and Device for Interpreting Concepts and Conceptual Thought… (1995) – Hudspeth, William J. — A system for acquisition and decoding of EP and SP signals is provided which comprises a transducer for presenting stimuli to a subject, EEG transducers for recording brainwave signals from the subject, a computer for controlling and synchronizing stimuli presented to the subject and for concurrently recording brainwave signals, and either interpreting signals using a model for conceptual perceptional and emotional thought to correspond EEG signals to thought of the subject or comparing signals to normative EEG signals from a normative population to diagnose and locate the origin of brain dysfunctional underlying perception, conception, and emotion.
  • US 5,289,438 (February 22, 1994) Method & System for Altering Consciousness Gall, James — A system for altering the states of human consciousness involves the simultaneous application of multiple stimuli, preferable sounds, having differing frequencies and wave forms. The relationship between the frequencies of the several stimuli is exhibited by the equation g = 2.sup.n/4 .multidot.f where: f = frequency of one stimulus; g = frequency of the other stimuli or stimulus; and n = a positive or negative integer which is different for each other stimulus.
  • US 5,245,666 Personal Subliminal Messaging System (1993) – Mikell, Bruce T. — A personal subliminal messaging system includes a wide range linear subliminal modulator (43), a digital audio recording or play device (46), a microphone (51) to pick up the sound at the ear, and an earpiece (50) to deliver the subliminal message. The sound level at the user’s ear is detected and measured. After risetime and decay conditioning of the varying dc control signal, the wide range linear modulator (43) uses this signal to control the level of the message to the earpiece (50). The user adjusts the system for a liminal of a subliminal level. The psychoacoustic phenomena of Post Masking is used to increase the integrity of the message in subliminal messaging systems.
  • US 5,224,864 Method of Recording and Reproducing Subliminal Signals that are 180 Degrees Out of Phase (1993) – Woith, Blake F. — A subliminal recording includes both subliminal message and mask signals applied to both tracks of a two track recording medium. The subliminal message signals are identical in content, and are recorded in an out-of-phase relationship. The mask signals are recorded in phase. The resulting recording may be utilized in the conventional manner for subliminal recordings. By combining the composite signals in an inverted relationship, the mask signals cancel while the subliminal message signals are additive, thus allowing the presence of the subliminal message signal to be confirmed on the recording.
  • US 5,221,962 Subliminal Device having Manual Adjustment of Perception Level of Subliminal Messages (1993) – Backus, Alan L., et al. — A method and apparatus for presenting subliminal visual and/or audio messages which allows user verification of message content and presence, as well as proper adjustment of message obviousness while accounting for ambient conditions and user sensitivities is disclosed. This method and apparatus also presents synchronized reinforced sensory input of subliminal messages. This is performed by simultaneously overlaying images received from a VCR over a plurality of television signals. This apparatus directs overlay images over RF television signals having both audio and video components.
  • US 5,215,468 Method and Apparatus for Introducing Subliminal Changes to Audio Stimuli Lauffer (1993) –  Martha A., et al. — A method and apparatus for introducing gradual changes to an audio signal so that the changes are subliminal. The changes can involve tempo and volume, for example, and can take the form of a gentle gradient having ever increasing/decreasi ng ramp-like changes over a sufficient duration, or a more complex program involving several gentle gradients. In the preferred embodiment, an enhanced audio play-back device such as a portable audio cassette recorder can be programmed to subliminally alter the characteristics of a standard pre-recorded tape containing music, for example. As a motivational tool during walking, jogging or other repetitive exercise, the tempo is gradually increased over a period of time to encourage a corresponding gradual (and subliminal) increase in physical exertion by a user whose rate of movement is proportional to the tempo of the music. The tempo can be either manually changed in conjunction with a subliminal program, or by itself in an override mode, or by itself in a version of the present-inventive audio play-back device which allows only manual tempo alternation. In an alternate embodiment, a special pre-recorded tape contains subliminal changes in tempo, for example, for play-back on a standard audio cassette recorder (which operates at one speed, only) to cause the same effect as the preferred embodiment.
  • US 5,194,008 Subliminal Image Modulation Projection and Detection System and Method (1993) – Mohan, William L., et al. — Weapon training simulation system including a computer operated video display scene whereon is projected a plurality of visual targets. The computer controls the display scene and the targets, whether stationary or moving, and processes data of a point of aim sensor apparatus associated with a weapon operated by a trainee. The sensor apparatus is sensitive to non-visible or subliminal modulated areas having a controlled contrast of brightness between the target scene and the targets. The sensor apparatus locates a specific subliminal modulated area and the computer determines the location of a target image on the display scene with respect to the sensor apparatus.
  • US 5,175,571 Glasses with Subliminal Message (1992) – Tanefsky, Faye, et al. — A pair of subliminal imaging spectacles is provided with a matched pair of visual subliminal images designed and placed so as to merge into one image due to the stereoscopic effect of human vision and thus to impart a subliminal message to the wearer.
  • US 5,170,381 Method for Mixing Audio Subliminal Recordings (1992) – Taylor, Eldon, et al. — Audio subliminal recordings are made in which in addition to using a primary carrier, such as music, two audio channels are used to deliver subliminal messages to the brain. On one channel, accessing the left brain hemisphere, the message delivered is meaningfully spoken, forward-masked, permissive affirmations delivered in a round-robin manner by a male voice, a female voice and a child’s voice. On the other channel, accessing the right brain, directive messages, in the same voices, are recorded in backward-masked (or meta-contrast) . The three voices are recording in round-robin fashion with full echo reverberation. The audio tracks are mixed using a special processor which converts sound frequencies to electrical impulses and tracks the subliminal message to synchronize the subliminal message in stereo with the primary carrier. The processor maintains constant gain differential between the primary carrier and the subliminal verbiage and, with the subliminal verbiage being recorded with round-robin, full echo reverberation, ensures that none of a message is lost. The primary carrier should be continuous music without breaks or great differences in movements.
  • USP 5,135,468 Method & Apparatus of Varying the Brain State of a Person by Means of an Audio Signal (1992) – Meissner, Juergen P. — A method of varying the brain state of a person includes the steps of supplying the first audio signal to one ear of the person, supplying a second audio signal to the other ear of the person, and substantially continuously varying the frequency of at least one of the first and second audio signals to vary the brain state of the person.
  • US 5,128,765 (July 7, 1992) System for Implementing the Synchronized Superimposition of Subliminal Signals Dingwall, Robert — An apparatus and system for the controlled delivery of a subliminal video and/or audio message on to a source signal from a video tape player or similar. The source signal is divided into audio and video portions. A video processor reads sychronization information from the source signal. A controller transmits a stored subliminal image at designated times to a mixer amplifier fully synchronized with the source signal. Concurrently, an audio subliminal message is applied to the source audio at a volume level regulated at some fraction to the source audio. The combined signals are transmitted to a monitor for undistracted viewing.
  • US 5,052,401 Product Detector for a Steady Visual Evoked Potential Stimulator and Product Detector (1991) – Sherwin, Gary — An automated visual testing system is disclosed which presents an alternating steady state visual stimulus to a patient through an optical system that modifies the stimulus image. As the image changes, the patient produces evoked potentials that change. The evoked potentials are detected by a product detector which produces the amplitude of the evoked potentials. The product detector includes filters which isolate the patient’s evoked potentials, a modulator which detects the response using the stimulus source frequency and a demodulator that determines the amplitude of the response. The product detector detects the level of the steady state evoked potential signals even in the presence of substantial background noise and extraneous electroencephalogra hic signals. These detectors can be used to monitor the evoked potential produced by visual, aural or somatic steady state stimuli. The components described above can be used to produce a system that can determine to which of several different displays an observer is paying attention by providing images that blink at different frequencies and product detectors for each of the stimulus frequencies. The product detector producing the highest output indicates the display upon which the observer is focused.
  • US 5,047,994 Supersonic Bone Conduction Hearing Aid and Method (1991) – Lenhardt, Martin, et al. — A supersonic bone conduction hearing aid that receives conventional audiometric frequencies and converts them to supersonic frequencies for connection to the human sensory system by vibration bone conduction. The hearing is believed to use channels of communications to the brain that are not normally used for hearing. These alternative channels do not deteriorate significantly with age as does the normal hearing channels. The supersonic bone conduction frequencies are discerned as frequencies in the audiometric range of frequencies.
  • US 5,036,858 Method & Apparatus for Changing Brain Wave Frequency (1991) – Carter, John L., et al. — A method for changing brain wave frequency to a desired frequency determines a current brain wave frequency of a user, generates two frequencies with a frequency difference of a magnitude between that of the current actual brain wave frequency and the desired frequency but always within a predetermined range of the current actual brain wave frequency, and produces an output to the user corresponding to the two frequencies. One apparatus to accomplish the method has a computer processor, a computer memory, EEG electrodes along with an amplifier, a programmable timing generator responsive to the computer processor for generating the two frequencies, audio amplifiers and a beat frequency generator driving a visual frequency amplifier.
  • US 5,027,208 Therapeutic Subliminal Imaging System (1991) – Dwyer, Jr., Joseph, et al. — A therapeutic subliminal imaging system wherein a selected subliminal message is synchronized with and added to an existing video signal containing a supraliminal message. A television receiver or video recorder can be used to provide the supraliminal message and a video processing circuit varies the intensity of that perceptible message to incorporate one or more subliminal images.
  • US 5,017,143 (May 21, 1991) Method and Apparatus for Producing Subliminal Images Backus, Alan, et al. — A method and apparatus to produce more effective visual subliminal communications. Graphic and/or text images, presented for durations of less than a video frame, at organized rhythmic intervals, the rhythmic intervals intended to affect user receptivity, moods or behavior. Subliminal graphic images having translucent visual values locally dependent on background values in order to maintain desired levels of visual contrast.
  • US 4,958,638 Non-Contact Vital Signs Monitor (1990) – Sharpe, Steven, et al. — An apparatus for measuring simultaneous physiological parameters such as heart rate and respiration without physically connecting electrodes or other sensors to the body. A beam of frequency modulated continuous wave radio frequency energy is directed towards the body of a subject. The reflected signal contains phase information representing the movement of the surface of the body, from which respiration and heartbeat information can be obtained. The reflected phase modulated energy is received and demodulated by the apparatus using synchronous quadrature detection. The quadrature signals so obtained are then signal processed to obtain the heartbeat and respiratory information of interest.
  • US 4,924,744 Apparatus for Generating Sound through Low Frequency and Noise Modulation (1990) – Lenzen, Reiner — In an apparatus for generating sound, there are provided a plurality of channels for generating sounds. Each of the channels includes a memory for storing waveform data, and at least one of the channels includes a noise generator so that various kinds of sounds including rhythm sound-effects sound, effects sound-vibrato etc. are generated. There is further provided a controller by which voice sound signal is passed through the channels so that artificial sound, voice sound etc. are generated. There is still further provided a circuit for adjusting an amplitude level of a whole sound which is obtained by mixing output sounds of the channels so that far and near sound is produced. Further, each of the channels includes left and right attenuators which divide a channel sound into left and right channel sounds. Still further, the apparatus comprises a low frequency oscillator for controlling a depth of frequency modulation, and a controller for writing sampling data of a predetermined waveform into serial addresses of a memory.
  • USP 4,734,037 Message Screen (1988) – McClure, J. Patrick — A transparent sheet is disclosed having a message thereon. The sheet has a first side adapted to be attached facing a plate which is normally viewed by a viewer and a second side facing the viewer. The message is arranged to be readably intelligible from the second side but is not liminally visible to the viewer when viewed from a normal viewing distance from the second side under normal viewing conditions. The message has a subliminal effect upon the viewer when viewed from the normal viewing distance from the second side under normal viewing conditions. A viewer can electively subject him or herself to subliminal messages while viewing television at leisure.
  • US 4,699,153 System for Assessing Verbal Psychobiological Correlates (1987) – Shevrin, Howard, et al. — A system for assessing psychobiological conditions of a subject utilizes a plurality of words which are selected to be in four categories as critical stimuli. The words are presented by a tachistoscope to the subject in subliminal and supraliminal modes of operation. Subliminal stimulation of the subject is achieved by presenting the selected words for an exposure period of approximately one millisecond. The supraliminal exposure time is approximately thirty milliseconds. Prior to stimulation, the subject is diagnosed in accordance with conventional psychoanalytical techniques to establish the presence and nature of a pathological condition. The words are selected and categorized in four groups: pleasant words, unpleasant words, words related to a diagnosed conscious pathological condition, and words related to a diagnosed unconscious pathological condition. The brain wave responses which are evoked by the stimulation are collected via electrodes and analyzed in accordance with a transinformation technique which is based on information signal theory for establishing a probabilistic value which corresponds to the information content of the evoked responses.
  • US 4,692,118 (September 8, 1987) Video Subconscious Display Attachment Mould, Richard E. — An apparatus and method for introducing messages to the subconscious mind is disclosed, which includes a panel positioned adjacent a television screen, with the panel having non-distractive messages imprinted thereon, such that as the subject consciously focuses his attention on the video screen, his subconscious mind records the message from the panel that is within his peripheral vision.
  • US 4,616,261 Method & Apparatus for Generating Subliminal Visual Messages (1986) – Crawford, James R., et al. — A system for generating a subliminal message during the display of a normal television program on a television receiver utilizes a personal computer to generate an RF carrier modulated with video signals encoding the subliminal message. The computer runs under the control of an application program which stores the subliminal message and also controls the computer to cause it to generate timing signals that are provided to a single pole double-throw switch. The source of the normal television program and the video output of the computer are connected to the two switch inputs and the switch output is connected to the television receiver antenna system. The timing signals cause the switch to normally display the conventional television program and to periodically switch to the computer output to generate the subliminal message. The video output of the computer includes horizontal and vertical synchronizing signals which are of substantially the same frequency as the synchronizing signals incorporated within the normal program source but of an arbitrary phase.
  • US 4,573,449 Method for Stimulating the Falling Asleep and/or Relaxing Behavior of a Person (1986) – Warnke, Egon F. — A method and apparatus is provided with which a person suffering from sleeplessness can be more easily relaxed and may more rapidly fall asleep. In particular, sound pulses are emitted by an electro-acoustic transducer, according to the cadence of which, the person seeking to fall asleep is induced to breathe in and out over a predetermined period of time. By suitably selecting the pulse sequence frequency, the pitch and the amplitude of the sound pulses may be adjusted thereby enhancing the process of falling asleep.
  • US 4,508,105 Shadow Generating Apparatus (1985) – Whitten, Glen, et al. — Disclosed is an apparatus for inducing various brain wave patterns through visual stimulation. The apparatus comprises a pair of spectacles or other viewing apparatus having a liquid crystal display embedded in each lens. By repetitively activating and deactivating the liquid crystals, shadows are generated which are perceived by the subject individual wearing the viewing apparatus. Responding to the frequency of shadow generation, the subject’s brain is thereby induced to generate sympathetic brain wave frequencies. The apparatus finds particular utility in the generation of alpha waves. Because learning is enhanced when the brain is in the alpha state, activities such as listening to tapes or lectures and the like can be carried out with greater facility. Shadow generation is accomplished through the use of a timing mechanism for each liquid crystal display and the frequency for each is adjustable over a wide range, permitting synchronous or asynchronous timing.
  • US 4,388,918 (June 21, 1983) Mental Harmonization Process Filley, Charles C. — A state of relaxation or mental harmonization in a subject is created by exposing a color solely to one field of vision of a subject and the complement of that color solely to the other field of vision of the subject while simultaneously exposing an audible tone solely to one ear of the subject and a harmonious tone solely to the other ear of the subject. The color and tones employed are subjectively comfortable and compatible. Preferably, the frequency difference between the two audible tones is one-half the frequency of the audible tone having the lowest frequency.
  • US 4,354,505 Method of and Apparatus for Testing and Indicating Relaxation State of a Human Subject (1982) – Shiga, Kazumasa — In a self-training biofeedback system, a physiological signal representing the state of relaxation of a person using the system is applied to a time counter to generate a binary count output representing the relaxation period. A visual indicator connected to the time counter provides the self trained person with a quick display of the measured time period so he can gauge the depth of his relaxation.
  • US 4,315,501 Learning-Relaxation Device (1982) – Gorges, Denis E. — Disclosed is a device for relaxing, stimulating and/or driving brain wave form function in a human subject. The device comprises, in combination, an eye mask having independently controlled left and right eyepieces and a peripheral light array in each eyepiece, an audio headset having independently controlled left and right earpieces and a control panel which controls light and sound signals to the light arrays and earpieces, respectively. Various control functions allow simultaneous or alternating light and sound pulsations in the left and right light arrays and earpieces, as well as selective phasing between light and sound pulsations.
  • US 4,141,344 Sound Recording System (1979) – Barbara, Louis J. — In recording an audio program, such as music or voice, on a magnetic tape recorder an A.C. signal generator operating at a frequency below about 14 Hz provides an AC baseline for the audio program signal. This 14 Hz or lower AC signal is sensed by the listener’s ear to create an Alpha or Theta state in his brain when the tape is played back.
  • US 4,082,918 Audio Analgesic Unit (1978) Chang, Roland W., et al. — An audio analgesic unit for use in masking sounds and substituting another sound which includes earmuffs to be used by a dental patient in which speakers are arranged and connected to a patient operated remote control unit to control the sound levels and a master control unit to override the patient remote control unit and operated by an operator, such as a dentist. A beeper indicates operation mode change.
  • US 3,884,218 Method of Inducing & Maintaining Various Stages of Sleep in the Human Being (1975) – Monroe, Robert A. — A method of inducing sleep in a human being wherein an audio signal is generated comprising a familiar pleasing repetitive sound modulated by an EEG sleep pattern. The volume of the audio signal is adjusted to overcome the ambient noise and a subject can select a familiar repetitive sound most pleasing to himself.
  • US 3,837,331 (September 24, 1974) System & Method for Controlling the Nervous System of a Living Organism Ross, S. — A novel method for controlling the nervous system of a living organism for therapeutic and research purposes, among other applications, and an electronic system utilized in, and enabling the practice of the invented method. Bioelectrical signals generated in specific topological areas of the organism’s nervous system, typically areas of the brain, are processed by the invented system so as to produce an output signal which is in some way an analog of selected characteristics detected in the bioelectrical signal. The output of the system, typically an audio or visual signal, is fed back to the organism as a stimulus. Responding to the stimulus, the organism can be trained to control the waveform pattern of the bioelectrical signal generated in its own nervous system.
  • US 3,835,833 Method for Obtaining Neurophysiological Effects (1974) – Limoge A. — A method and apparatus for obtaining neurophysiological effects on the central and/or peripheral systems of a patient. Electrodes are suitably positioned on the body of the patient and a composite electric signal is applied at the electrodes. The composite signal is formed by the superpositioning of two signals: a first signal which is a rectified high-frequency carrier modulated in amplitude to about 100 percent by substantially square-shaped pulses whose duration, amplitude and frequency are chosen according to the neurophysiological effects desidered, and a second signal which has a relatively white noise spectrum. The mean value of the first electric signal has a predetermined sign which is opposite the sign of the mean value of the second electric signal.
  • US 3,766,331 Hearing Aid for Producing Sensations in the Brain (1973) – Zink, Henry R. — A pulsed oscillator or transmitter supplies energy to a pair of insulated electrodes mounted on a person’s neck. The transmitter produces pulses of intensity greater than a predetermined threshold value and of a width and rate so as to produce the sensation of hearing without use of the auditory canal, thereby producing a hearing system enabling otherwise deaf people to hear.
  • US 3,727,616 Electronic System for Stimulation of Biological Systems (1973) – Lenskes H. — A receiver totally implanted within a living body is inductively coupled by two associated receiving coils to a physically unattached external transmitter which transmits two signals of different frequencies to the receiver via two associated transmitting coils. One of the signals from the transmitter provides the implanted receiver with precise control or stimulating signals which are demodulated and processed in a signal processor network in the receiver and then used by the body for stimulation of a nerve, for example, while the other signal provides the receiver with a continuous wave power signal which is rectified in the receiver to provide a source of electrical operating power for the receiver circuitry without need for an implanted battery.
  • US 3,712,292 Method & Apparatus for Producing Swept FM Audio Signal Patterns for Inducing Sleep (1973) – Zentmeyer J. — A method of producing sound signals for inducing sleep in a human being, and apparatus therefor together with REPRESENTATIONS thereof in recorded form, wherein an audio signal is generated representing a familiar, pleasing, repetitive sound, modulated by continuously sweeping frequencies in two selected frequency ranges having the dominant frequencies which occur in electrical wave patterns of the human brain during certain states of sleep. The volume of the audio signal is adjusted to mask the ambient noise and the subject can select any of several familiar, repetitive sounds most pleasing to him.
  • US 3,576,185 Sleep-Inducing Method & Arrangement using Modulated Sound & Light (1971) -Meseck Oscar, Schulz Hans R.

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